Category Archives: People Issues

The secret ingredient to getting product innovation done

So you’ve probably heard of “earlyvangelists”.

(No? Read this post by Steve Blank, who coined the term.)

In Lean Startup circles, we hear a lot about finding this special breed of customers. Why?

Because they’re the ones willing to make the initial bet on the startup. They’ve bought into the startup’s vision and potential. They’re not just buying a version of the product, but the entire vision of the startup. This is what keeps them committed even if the startup screws up a few times.

They are the true visionary customers talked about in the technology adoption lifecycle.

So a lot of focus is put in identifying, finding and nurturing these earlyvangelists in the form of testing customer and problem hypotheses, testing solution hypotheses, finding problem/solution fit, creating an MVP, and getting true customer validation by finding a handful of customers who are actually willing to pay you for your solution — the “earlyvangelists”.

Now, juxtapose this with traditional product management.

When I started out in product management, I was introduced to the technology adoption lifecycle. I read about it in books. People talked about it in conferences. “You must find those visionary customers and early adopters,” experts said in their presentations.Cool.

Cool.

Problem was: no one taught me how to get these magical customers.

Business school didn’t teach me how to get earlyvangelists.

Product management didn’t teach me how to get earlyvangelists.

Instead, what I was told was to develop a business case. Write an MRD. Create a business plan.

Business school told me I was supposed to do this. Smart consultants and well-meaning senior executives and mentors reinforced this. Elaborate PMO processes required this.

Want resources for your product idea? Show us your business case.

So what’s wrong with that? On the surface, it made sense. Unlike a startup, which is searching for a sustainable business model, a company is executing an existing business model.

On the surface, it made sense. Unlike a startup, which is searching for a sustainable business model, a company is executing an existing business model.

Shareholder returns, customer value, and employee paychecks depend on the successful execution of this business model.

So the company needs to evaluate its investments in terms of risk to this business model. A company needs to know whether to dedicate its resources to project A or B. To do that, it needs to know which has the better payoff.

Good intentions.

But here’s what actually happened.

Product managers began spending loads of time writing multi-page MRDs, crafting business case slideware, and crunching through multi-year financial “projections”. These documents were filled with unvalidated assumptions or HiPPO driven convictions.

“How the heck can I figure out whether customers will buy the product before it even exists?” they’d ask. “How can I figure out how much money it will make when no customer has bought it yet?”

The product manager would torture the spreadsheet, try and convince finance of adoption rates and growth trajectories based on mere guesses, and go to Engineering/IT for estimates.

“You need to give me requirements,” Engineering would say. “If they’re not documented, there’s no way I can give you estimates.”

So the product manager would then start writing an MRD / PRD / BRD / <stick your 3-letter acronym here>. Ah, the joy…

And under pressure to get “accurate” estimates, they’d pack in as much detail as possible, essentially guessing at the features and functionality that would be needed.

And every minute the product manager spent preparing the business case, writing the MRD/PRD or torturing the spreadsheet was valuable time not spent with customers.

So it’s no surprise that in a recent survey filled out by over 40 product managers who enrolled in my online course, Idea To Revenue Masterclass, they listed the following as their biggest product innovation challenges:

#1 Biggest Innovation Challenge: Testing product ideas without having a product.

Meaning testing with both customers and internally within their organizations. They need ways to test their understanding of the market, as well as evaluate the revenue potential for a product opportunity, but without having a product already.

“My number one product management challenge is creating business requirement documents on new products and demonstrating a return on investment for 1/3/5 years without releasing the product.” — survey response

#2 Biggest Innovation Challenge: Alignment, buy-in and communication.

How many people does it take to change a lightbulb?

(Or maybe the question is: how many people does it take to get approval to change the lightbulb? Ha!)

This challenge is a close second to the first. Product innovators are challenged with communicating product strategy to get buy-in, getting executive support for their product plans, aligning teams within the company to support new products, and managing communication across multiple stakeholders.

“In a growing organization, with lots of ‘people of interest’, communicating what you are building and why is a huge challenge.” — survey response

In a blog post titled, Why Internal Ventures are Different from External Startups, Henry Chesbrough argued:

The internal venture must fight on a second front at the same time within the corporation. That second fight must obtain the permissions, protection, resources, etc. needed to launch the venture initiative, and then must work to retain that support over time as conflicts arise (which they will).

#3 Biggest Innovation Challenge: Resources.

We can never have too many resources, can we? 🙂

Working with resource constraints is a fact of life. But product innovators feel this acutely so.

They’re pushed to accelerate time to market, yet are challenged with selling the business case for the right mix of resources to do just that.

And, of course, this leads to the chicken-or-egg dilemma from challenge #1:

We need a product to test whether customers value it…

But we need customer validation in order to get the resources to build the product!

“My #1 product planning challenge is getting and retaining key resources to minimize time to market consistent and aligned with company priorities.” — survey response

So what’s the solution?

This brings us back to “earlyvangelists”…

Lean practices can and should be adopted and adapted to pursue product innovation inside companies. But product innovators actually need to find two types of earlyvangelists:

  • Earlyvangelist customers.
  • Internal stakeholder advocates, a.k.a. “internalvangelists”.

One of the biggest factors that can derail any new product endeavor is lack of internal support. In product innovation, lack of stakeholder traction can often be a bigger roadblock than customer traction.

These stakeholders not only may have access to essential information and resources but also be able to influence key decision makers whose support is critical to the success of your product initiative.

The larger the organization you work in, the more stakeholders you’re likely to have. It’s important to identify who these folks are and make sure you’re not only bringing them along but in fact converting them into advocates — evangelists — for your product initiative.

Product management didn’t teach me how to get internalvangelists.

The good news is that a lean approach that fuses customer development methods with sound product management practices can be used to get early customers AND build the business case, create alignment, and cultivate internalvangelists iteratively.

Lean product management can get you “earlyvangelists” and “internalvangelists”.

Here’s an example:

Customer learning driven investment strategy

The approach calls for spending plenty of time with customers in a methodical way, systematically testing assumptions at each phase, while also having regular check-ins with folks internally.

Each stage is informed by learnings from the previous stage — “mini business cases”, if you will, at each milestone, instead of wasting time writing a big tome of a business case up front.

Requirements for delivery need only be done when there’s a clear signal to do so. For example, if you find there’s no problem/solution fit, no need to write detailed requirements to build out an MVP or do financial projections. Only on achieving problem/solution fit does it make sense to spend the time doing those activities.

This customer learning driven approach makes for a more market-informed investment approach to the product strategy. This makes it easier to garner, maintain and accelerate stakeholder buy-in, because:

(1) Each investment stage is grounded in real customer data, resulting in less assumptive and more empirically based investment asks.

(2) Smaller continual investments that deliver continuous tangible ROI throughout the process are easier for folks to digest and support than a large bloated one upfront.

(3) Stakeholders continually feel involved in the process, increasing confidence to persevere.

There are surely other variants to this approach. The point here is that lean principles can be fused with sound product management practices to:

  • Test product ideas without a product.
  • Build the business case iteratively.
  • Get alignment and buy-in, and create internalvangelists.
  • And get those magical earlyvangelists!

5 Indispensable Habits Of Great Product Leaders

As a product management leader, there are many demands on your time. It’s easy to get sucked into working on the most pressing issues and on meeting other people’s expectations.

As “do-ers”, it’s in our nature to jump on these issues immediately. We pride ourselves on our competence to tackle these right away.

But when we do so, are we as product leaders really making traction on the things that matter? When you get to the end of the day, do you feel a sense of accomplishment?

We’re all familiar with the Eisenhower Decision Matrix:

Eisenhower Decision Matrix

Eisenhower Decision Matrix popularized in the self-help book “First Things First” by Stephen Covey

We know we should be spending more (most) of our time in quadrant 2, the yellow box.

I must admit, though, I’ve been guilty of spending too much time in the urgent column. Heck, I’ve wasted time being in quadrant 4.

There’s always a fire to put out, an urgent meeting, a request from up the chain to satisfy, someone stopping by the desk to ask a “quick question”, an email to answer, a phone call to return.

The problem is that while it feels like we’re getting stuff done in the moment, we’re actually not getting anything of real value done. It’s an illusion.

And we know this, because by the end of a day like this we usually feel drained, and lack a sense of real accomplishment.

This problem can be particularly acute for product leaders, who are responsible for (among other things) the product vision and strategy of the company, the business results of the company’s product portfolio, the performance of the product management process, and the success of their team.

The challenge is if we don’t make time for the important stuff, the urgent will always win.

But it’s easy to say we should spend time in quadrant 2. How do we actually do that?

Dan Martell, successful serial entrepreneur and investor, published this video on his YouTube channel in which he talks about what should the day of a startup CEO look like.

He talks about how as he grew in his career, he began thinking about how he could make time for the things important to him, and what are the things other people can support him on and help him with.

He lays out 5 things that startup CEOs should focus on. As I listened to this list, I realized that these same habits apply to successful product management leaders!

They’re habits because they do these regularly, every week, every day. It’s how they ensure they’re making traction on the things that are most important.

As I’ve grown in my own career, I’ve done these same things, and found them to be indispensable in the successful execution of my products.

Here they are:

1. The Daily Check-In

The most effective product leaders check in with their team every day.

Yes, every day. As much as is practical, do this at the top of the day.

One way may be in the form of a stand-up or huddle where folks provide a quick update on progress and highlight any major impediments to getting work accomplished.

Another way is to check in individually. You may “walk the floor”, stopping by each team member’s desk for a few minutes to see how things are going, how they’re feeling, and if there any major issues they may need help with.

As a product leader, you need to stay in tune with the “pulse” of your team. A daily check-in will enable you to stay on top of things tactically, as well as ensure you’ve got the temperature of your team members.

2. Keep Half Your Schedule Open For Strategic Stuff

What? Half? Really?

OK, so this one may be a challenge. But it’s SUPER important.

As a product leader, you’re responsible for setting the product vision and strategy.

That means spending time doing research, discovery and analysis, AND having some thinking time.

In addition, as a product leader, you’re responsible for communicating the product vision and strategy to everyone else in the organization.

So the point here is you need to keep a good chunk of time dedicated toward strategic activities.

If you think this is difficult, look back at the Eisenhower Decision Matrix, and ask yourself how you realistically plan to get quadrant 2 stuff done?

If you don’t make time for it, if you don’t protect that time, trust me, you’ll never get it done.

I’ve actually blocked time off on my calendar to do strategic stuff. I fight not to give up that time.

Keep half your schedule open for strategic stuff.

3. Major Projects Should Be On Your Calendar

This is somewhat related to point #2.

For example, you may be performing due diligence on a potential partner or acquisition as part of a developing product strategy. Or you may be conducting some market research or customer interviews.

Make sure these things are on your calendar.

In addition, there may be major initiatives either you are personally championing or that your team is working on that require your priority attention. A new product launch or a major release, for example.

If you want to get traction on these things, be sure to block off a reasonable amount of time for them — time that enables you to achieve flow.

4. Align Everyday Work To The Product Vision

In product management, it’s easy to get consumed by a particular feature, requirement, story, page layout, design construct, thorny technical issue, project delivery date, PowerPoint slide, or Excel analysis.

As a product leader, you need to make sure everyone understands their work serves a higher purpose.

That it ties back to something bigger, a shared goal. This is typically the product vision, product strategy, even the company mission.

And you need to do this constantly. All the time. Every day.

As Dan Martell describes it perfectly in his video:

“People forget. They get in these funks. They don’t understand why what they’re working on is going to be aligning to the bigger purpose. You should be going around to your team and saying, ‘Hey, you know that interface you’re designing? That’s going to allow us to do X, Y and Z, and allow us to achieve these big results we’re all agreed upon.'”

5. Talk With Customers. Every Week.

If you’re a product leader, this should be a “Duh!”

In fairness, though, it’s easy to become preoccupied with the demands of senior executives, the CEO, the Board, your peers, and your own team.

Certainly, the larger the organization, the more demands on your time from people within the organization than without.

But the primary job of product management is an executable product strategy. To do that means spending time with customers.

So it’s imperative product leaders dedicate time to hear directly from their customers.

Even if you have product managers reporting into you, perhaps an entire hierarchy with Directors, Senior Product Managers, Product Owners, etc. on your team, you need to spend time with your customers.

Not so much to get feedback on a specific feature or an interface design, but to immerse yourself in their world — what challenges they’re facing, what trends they’re seeing in their industry, what opportunities they’re pursuing, what defines business and personal success for them.

By doing this, you can not only make sure the current product vision and strategy, even the company mission, is aligned with the needs of your customers, but also identify opportunities to pivot on these things if necessary.

And it enables you to align the every day work with how you’re creating value for your customers.

Disclosure: I don’t know Dan Martell personally, but am a follower. All credit and many thanks for his excellent video in inspiring this post.

Introducing Product Management into your company – part 2

In part 1, I talked about the challenges of introducing product management into an established organization. Here I share hard-learned lessons on how to avoid common pitfalls and start laying the foundation for long-term success.

Start with why

If you’re looking to bring Product Management into your organization, start with this very fundamental question:

Why?

Seriously, why do you really need product management? What problem are you expecting it to solve?

Improved product development processes?

Better requirements writing? (Ick.)

Maintaining feature lists? (C’mon, seriously?)

Being the demo guy? (Groan…)

Project manage software releases? (Get a project manager.)

Some folks believe dedicated Product Management is needed because there needs to be someone to coordinate all product related activities across the organization — in other words, serve as a glorified air traffic control.

While there is certainly a degree of this involved in product management, you don’t need a dedicated Product Management department just to coordinate your organization’s inefficiencies around your product.

Those inefficiencies could be solved by your various departments better coordinating around product activities. Or they could be re-structured and appropriate processes could be developed around them to ensure continuous delivery.

The ‘why’ question is critical because it sets the expectation for the value Product Management is expected to bring to the organization.

It also crystallizes whether there are ways to solve the problems the organization faces through its current structure.

So why would you want Product Management?

Because you fundamentally understand that sustainable growth comes from innovation…

Tha innovation is about creating monetizable customer value

And product management is the chief vehicle to deliver that.

So if you’re hiring a product manager because you’re developing a software and simply need someone to provide requirements to engineering and project manage the delivery, don’t hire a product manager. Hire a project manager who can double up as a business systems analyst.

Prepare the organization

You must understand that Product Management is a disruptive force, a radical change to the way the organization has been conducting its business thus far. The introduction of a product management function will centralize many functions that were previously diversified. (Fragmented?) Senior leadership MUST think carefully if this is something they want to take the organization through and must prepare to shepherd each of the other departments through their change curves.

In other words, ssenior leadership must take an active role in the success of product management.

Who’s your first hire? And where do they sit?

A more senior individual will bring the experience and know-how to take on a more leadership type role, coalesce the organizations around a coherent product strategy and, when the time comes, leverage their personal network to bring in additional product management talent.

For a growing company, taking over many of the product strategy execution aspects off of the CEO, CIO/CTO, founder, etc. is exactly what the first formal Product Management leader would do. As such, you’ll be better off making your first hire at a more senior level, at least VP or Director. Ensuring sustainable success for the position — and, thus, for the product strategy — in an ideal manner means setting it up in terms of stature and position with respect to the other departments.

A common pushback I hear from organizations that have never hired a product manager is they worry a more senior person may not be willing to be as “hands on” and handle the necessary tactical activities that need to be done.

First, that’s silly, frankly. Just make sure in your hiring process you look for a leader who’s willing to and has demonstrable experience getting their hands dirty.

Second, product management is a unique discipline that necessarily requires one to execute tactically while thinking strategically. It’s the thing that sets it apart from many other disciplines.

Now, as a practical matter, it’s possible the company may simply not have the budget to hire a senior level person since such an individual will naturally command a higher compensation. And waiting to have the right budget may not be an option if the company is in crisis mode where it needs someone to step in to pick up activities that are getting dropped. So the company may be forced to opt for a more ‘junior’ product manager.

Regardless of the experience level of the individual and the title of the role, one of the biggest risks here is where to place this individual in the organization. I would still advocate having this person report directly to the senior most executive in charge of product strategy, including the CEO.

Unfortunately, what often happens is the individual is put under Marketing, Sales or Engineering. (Or, worse, “IT”.) The dangers with this approach are well documented.1

The product manager becomes a support role for the primary function of that department, providing content for marketing materials, doing product demos for sales, or writing requirements and project managing deliverables for engineering. No time to do the critical work of understanding market problems and formulating the product strategy.

Who to hire and where they sit are critical decisions to ensure long term success. I once worked for a company that rotated through five directors and seventeen product managers in just six years. A total of twenty-two. Twenty-two!

Ensure senior sponsorship

Ensure there is someone in a senior executive position who is willing to be the champion for Product Management. This has the greatest impact on Product Management’s long-term success.

You need someone at that level to evangelize the value that product management brings to the organization, and provide the necessary air support when political attacks threaten to disrupt it in its formative stages.

Do you feel lucky? Well… do ya?

So far I’ve talked from the organization’s point of view. What if you’re the first product manager in the company?

Here’s what you should do:

Clarify your role

Because expectations may vary widely, it’s important to clarify your role upfront.

If you’re joining a startup, an enterprise with a visionary CEO, or a company with established lines of business, the CEO or line of business may want to continue to act as the product visionary and retain control over the product direction.

In this case, the Product Manager will likely play a more tactical role, working more closely with engineering on product releases, perhaps supporting marketing and sales activities. Your role with respect to setting the product strategy will be strictly as an influencer.

This may be okay if you’re a newly minted product manager or have got only a few years of PM experience under your belt. Your gaps are in understanding the business, the industry, and the go-to-market strategy. If your company is selling to other businesses, you may have gaps in understanding your customers’ business models.

You can reasonably expect to be coached and mentored with respect to these gaps so that over time you can take over more of the go-to-market and strategic aspects of the job.

And if you are the visionary CEO or line of business GM hiring the product manager, you should prepare yourself to mentor your newly hired product manager over the next several years.

Clarify expectations

You need to have a mutually agreed upon definition of success. Clarify how your performance will be judged. Reconcile these with the scope of the role.

If you’re expected to play a more tactical role, yet deliver product innovation…

Or if you’re measured on the number of defects and customer complaints; yet the role is about market insight and setting the product direction…

Or you’re told they want you to be strategic, but you’ll be measured on tactical things like “on-time” delivery…

These are signs of expectations being incongruous with the role.

Or to put it more bluntly: The role is set up for failure and you should RUN AWAY.

As stated earlier, Product Management is an agent of change, because it changes existing business processes, and takes decision making and responsibilities away from current owners. This creates uncertainty.

To the extent reasonable, talk to everyone. Understand their expectations. Share these findings with your hiring bosses to clarify expectations and the role, and ensure they are congruous. Doing this has the added benefit of helping you establish key relationships and building your credibility. (Important!)

Ensure senior sponsorship

I talked above this above. Regardless of whether you’re coming in with the title of “Product Manager” or “VP or Product”, make sure there is a true believer at the senior executive level who will go to bat for you, give you the space to establish yourself into the role, and support your efforts to be targeted and focused.

Which brings us to:

Focus!

Look, you simply can’t do everything. If you’ve done your homework on the role and expectations fronts, identify what you think are the most pressing problems, share them with your stakeholders, gain their buy-in, and focus relentlessly on the top priorities.

Lower level priorities and new problems will crop up, of course, but at least you’ll be able to fall back on the agreement you reached and have a constructive conversation on re-assessing priorities based on new realities. This gives you a much greater chance to get things done while keeping your credibility intact.

Introducing Product Management into an organization can be fraught with ambiguity, unreasonable expectations, and threats from every corner. But with foresight and planning, it’s possible to set it up for long-term success. Either way, it’s going to be a roller coaster. So saddle up, buckle in, and get ready for a wild ride!

1Further reading:
Marty Cagan: Where Should Product Management Live?
Steve Johnson: Where Does Product Management Belong In An Organization?
Rich Mironov: Where Should PM Report?

“Stakeholder Development”: Using Customer Development on Internal Stakeholders

In my last post, I introduced the Product Canvas — my iteration of the Business Model Canvas — as a simple and quick way to capture my idea for a product. I’ve also used it as a communication tool to share my product vision and get early feedback, which is critical in the beginning stages of exploring a new product opportunity.

I’ve been sharing the Product Canvas with anyone who’s asked, and early feedback has been encouraging. One of the biggest things that seems to be resonating with folks is the Key Stakeholders box.

Product Canvas - Key Stakeholders

Look, I’ll admit, managing stakeholders is cumbersome, tiresome, and at times a pain. There, I said it. Admit it: you’ve felt that too. In my research on the business case process, a large majority stated that maintaining stakeholder support and alignment is important, but a challenge.

But I’ve learned the hard way that identifying and aligning stakeholders is really important for any initiative. So that’s why I put it in the Product Canvas. The reality is lack of stakeholder support can kill any brilliant idea at any stage.

When I came across Steve Blank’s Customer Development methodology, I wondered if its principles could be applied to internal stakeholder support. In other words, I wondered if it was possible to “develop” stakeholders too?

Here’s the Customer Development process. Steve’s bottom-line advice is to “get out of the building”.

Customer Development

So if apply this to “Stakeholder Development”, I’m thinking the process would look something like this:

Stakeholder Development

In this case, the bottom-line activity is to “walk the building”!

I figured this provided me as good a workable framework as any to identify, build and grow stakeholder support, and then I decided to put it to the test.

Through much trial and error, here are some tactics I’ve applied to Stakeholder Development. I’ll admit I haven’t fully cracked the code, and continue to experiment and learn. By sharing here, I’m hoping others may try as well and share their feedback.

I try to follow a systematic process for identifying my stakeholders, sharing my vision, capturing their feedback, and creating traction. I’ve been experimenting with applying Lean Startup’s Build-Measure-Lean loop for the purposes of doing this, and over time, I’ve developed a basic meta pattern:

stakeholder_dev_loop

So now that I’ve got a workflow I can follow, my first step is to identify who I think are my primary stakeholders, and I capture this in the Key Stakeholders column of my Product Canvas. Sometimes I already know ahead of time. In that case, I simply list them in the Product Canvas. But I have been in situations where I wasn’t entirely sure who were my key stakeholders. In this case, I capturing my hypothesis for who they may be.

I also try to identify a possible executive champion or sponsor – something I’ve learned is practically a requirement in a larger organization to ensure the success of any initiative.

So my Product Canvas could look something like this:

Product Canvas - Key Stakeholders example

I’d have actual names in the box, of course. If I don’t know who my executive sponsor will be (insider’s tip: it’s not always your boss), I don’t put a name, but I definitely call it out so it’s always at the forefront.

Next, I formulate hypotheses to approach my potential stakeholders. Going back to the Stakeholder Development flow above, notice a key question is “What are their agendas?” Remember: everyone has their own set of priorities. Some are visible, like a project deliverable; but some are invisible, like organizational political pressures. (Like it or not, these exist.) The more knowledgeable I can about their priorities, the better I can position myself to either gain their support or counter their arguments. At worse, I’ll have identified a potential detractor early on.

I then “walk the building”, reaching out and setting up meetings. For stakeholders with whom I don’t have a close relationship, who barely or don’t know me, I try to figure out ways to get an intro, just like one would do with customer interviews.

Setting up and conducting these conversations may be time consuming, but they are invaluable to validate who are my real stakeholders, and what I’ll need to do to get their buy-in.

I maintain a simple log to track my progress that I call my Stakeholder Development Tracker:

Stakeholder Development Tracker

There have been times I’ve discovered that someone who I thought would be an important stakeholder, actually isn’t. Great: I just mark their Role and Status as as N/A, and move on. Other times, I discover that someone I originally hadn’t identified is actually going to play a significant role in the approval and/or execution of my project.

Stakeholder Development Tracker Example

As I validate who are my true stakeholders, I update my Product Canvas.

product-canvas-key-stakeholders-iteration

These stakeholders are the ones I really want to focus on, the ones with whom I want to create traction. If I play my cards right, I can convert them from supporters to advocates to where they are actually personally vested in the success of my initiative.

As I said, I’ve been experimenting with this as a framework. It’s a work-in-progress, and I’ve enjoyed some success. Give it a whirl yourself, and let me know what works or doesn’t. If you have an approach to Stakeholder Development that’s worked for you, please share.

A successful business case is not about the analysis

You’ve worked hard to prepare an air tight business case for that new product idea or that additional investment your current product needs to take it to the next level. You’ve clearly quantified the opportunity, identified the product solution, crafted the marketing strategy, thought through all possible risks and mitigation strategies, validated all assumptions, analyzed the investment requirements, and have developed a robust, stress-tested ROI model. You’ve vetted the business case with your boss and his or her boss as well. You’ve even practiced your presentation in front of the mirror. Despite some understandable anxiety, you’re feeling confident. You’re ready.

But your presentation ends in disaster. Your business case, while solid, falls flat. The execs either trash it completely, or worse, end up making no decision at all leaving you in limbo with no direction whatsoever. What happened? What did you miss?

In a nutshell, the people factor. When I started out, I thought if I had a well thought out presentation backed by solid analysis, that would be enough. After all, that’s what they taught us in business school, and it’s what the experts tell us we should all be doing. Good enough, right? Wrong. What I learned in the real world is that at the end of the day business runs on people, and you need to get people on your side if you want buy-in for your ideas and proposals. Yes, your analysis and recommendations have to be solid – that’s a given. But if number crunching and logic were all it took to convince people, this would probably be a very different world.

I learned that “pre-selling” ideas are critical to getting buy-in for my proposals, be they from execs or even among peers. And to do this, understanding “trust networks” is critical. This means figuring out who trusts whom, who has credibility with which folks, and understanding the personalities involved – what are their motivators, concerns, agendas. And the larger the organization and the more layers between you and those whose approval you seek, frankly, the more intricate the trust networks and the more “pre-selling” you will have to do.

The goal here is two-fold. For one, you can identify potential concerns and challenges early, and so be prepared to address them during the formal pitch. Second, in a ideal situation, everyone is already pre-sold on your proposal, so the meeting is really more of a formality with everyone at the table prediposed to nodding their agreement.

It’s tough work, and it requires its own special planning. But if done right, it can make your actual formal presentation go a whole lot smoother.