Tag Archives: MVP

Why Products Fail [PODCAST]

Why do products fail?

What are the three important milestones for a new product?

Why is it so important to get to market fast?

How do you manage stakeholders when building a new product?

What is an MVP?

What are the key skills of a good product manager?

How do you stay in touch with current trends?

In 2015, I had the privilege of being interviewed on a podcast series called Yours Productly where we discussed not only these topics, but also:

  • The Product Canvas: why I created it, how to use it, and its growing popularity
  • Lean Startup and Customer Development
  • And what I’ve learned from mentoring over 100 product people around the world.

Frankly, I was amazed at how much ground we were able to cover!


You won’t be disappointed!

P.S. In the podcast I talk about a book I was planning to write. I’m not doing that anymore.

Yours Productly is a podcast series hosted by Ravi Kumar, founder of ProductCamp Singapore, where he talks about the business of building great software products with product rockstars and marketeers like Rich Mironov, Steve Johnson, Michael Eckhardt from Chasm Institute, Roman Pichler, and John Mansour, among many others.

Create Your Business Case Using Customer Development

The traditional product innovation process of writing a business case with long-term financial projections, then writing a big PRD, then doing development and launch your product doesn’t work.

At the 2015 Modev MVP and the Lean+Agile DC conferences, I presented an actual example of using Customer Development and Validated Learning to test a new product idea and build its business case, which produced far more impactful results.

Here my slides from those talks (same set used for both):


No, I Can’t Give You A Roadmap For Our New Product (Yet)

Cartoon by Roger LathamA fellow product manager that’s working on a new product idea recently wrote to me:

“Common feedback I receive from our our engineers and executives is they don’t have a good grasp of the product vision. They say, “OK, that’s great, we can build that. But where are we going with this if we find the hypothesis to be true? What’s the long term vision for the product?” In essence, they’re asking what’s the end goal in 2-5 years, and if you show me that I’ll have a better sense of the architecture and tools I need to account for.”

This product manager is right at the very initial stages of their product idea, where he still needs to test the problem and solution hypotheses. But he’s already being asked for a long-term product roadmap! Sound familiar?

While the request seems perfectly reasonable, it’s misplaced at such an early stage. The question about architecture and tools seems perfectly reasonable on the surface, but it’s a scale question, and is not the right one to be focusing on before you even know if you’ve identified the right customer problem and have proof that your solution approach is viable to solving that problem. Execs are trying to assess the potential market opportunity, the underlying investment that will be needed, and the speed to achieving ROI. So naturally they want to see the long-term roadmap. Again, perfectly reasonable on the surface, but at such an early stage, you’re likely in no position to be able to answer the question.

Even at the conceptual stage, you likely have a list of potential features in your mind. You could prioritize them using one of the many scorecarding techniques written about by seasoned product practitioners. (See this, this, this, and this, to reference just a few.) These are all very valid techniques written by product folks who really know their stuff.

If you do that, though, you’ll be wasting your time. Creating a product roadmap is predicated on having a coherent product strategy, which is predicated on having a validated understanding of who are your customers, what are their pain points, and whether they’ll find your solution valuable. If you don’t even know if customers will buy your solution, what’s the point in having a roadmap?

So when do you develop a roadmap for a new product? I get this question a lot on my product help calls, so I thought I’d share my answer here.

For a startup product, the first step is always to identify the customer segment and customer problem. Quickly capture your product vision, formulate your customer, problem and solution hypotheses, and systematically test them. As you go along, you need to identify potential “innovator” customers and early adopters to whom you could deliver your solution — typically you build the product for these folks first. If practicable, test pricing at this stage as well.

Figure what you absolutely must deliver to these folks to solve their #1 problem, and work like hell to deliver it as quickly as possible. All other features get cut from scope and sit in the backlog. Again, with respect to pricing, what the customer is willing to pay to solve for takes clear precedence over anything else.

After delivering this, say, MVP, you need to actively gain feedback from these early customers. You’re using your delivered product to gain deeper insights into the customer’s problem, and you’re trying to understand what you need to improve in the product to (a) get these customers to stick, and (b) attract more new customers.

In addition, now that you have an initial set of engaged customers, you can also try to test their second level set of problems (or discover new ones). Understanding those problems may identify new enhancements/features. You’ll now be armed with a set of improvements, fixes and new ideas that you can put into the backlog.

If you have a sales force, and have armed them to sell your MVP, make sure you’re actively gathering feedback from them as well. Of course, not all their feedback may be feature-related — some may be about testing and evolving your sales messaging and positioning. However, as it relates to feature gaps, you put those into the backlog as well. I pay particular attention to feedback that’s preventing a customer sale.

You’ll have a pretty good backlog at this point, so you can now start building an initial roadmap. Start by prioritizing the backlog based on a reasonable customer-centric set of criteria that also help deliver on your company goals. I typically skew my priorities heavily toward voice of customer (VOC) feedback. While at any stage of the product lifecycle, features should solve tangible customer problems, it’s even more important at this early stage.

I also factor in the company’s strategic goals. For example, if the company’s focus is retention, features that create stickiness may carry more weight; if the focus is growth through customer acquisition, then sellable features may be more important; if it’s revenue through customer penetration, features that drive engagement and up-sells may take priority.

I also make some allowance for operational issues. I may not necessarily have a scale problem (yet), so these type of issues may not take precedence over VOC or driving revenue; however, I don’t want to completely ignore technical debt or reasonable operational fixes.

Once you have a prioritized list, socialize it. (Read this post by Bruce McCarthy on using “shuttle diplomacy” to get buy-in.) For the top priority items on the list, get t-shirt sizing from Engineering, and make a final call to sequence out the items based on customer value vs. LOE. Now you’ve got a validated product in the marketplace with a decent first-pass roadmap that you can build upon.

For Corporate Innovation, Lean Startup Is Not Enough To Define Your MVP

One of the biggest challenges product innovators in established companies face in defining an MVP is getting buy-in from internal stakeholders. Be they senior executives, peers, other departments, partners, or even your boss, corporate product innovators have multiple constituents to manage. Somehow, you have to make everyone feel a part of the process without letting them run over you and having your MVP be destroyed by feature bloat right at the definition stage.

This is an area I’ve not seen the Lean Startup movement address. So let’s do that here. The way I’ve done it is by fusing Lean Startup methods with Product Management practices — specifically, by leveraging a process every Product Manager knows: roadmap prioritization.

My friend, Bruce McCarthy, has talked about the 5 pillars of roadmaps, the first 3 of which are:

  1. Setting strategic goals
  2. Objective prioritization
  3. Shuttle diplomacy

These same pillars can be used for defining an MVP and getting stakeholder buy-in.

Setting Strategic Goals

The first step is to capture your product strategy. I wrote about how you can do this quickly using the Product CanvasTM.

What’s great about the Product Canvas is it allows you to document your vision in a simple, portable and sharable way. The trick is to be concise. The intent isn’t to capture every nuance of the customer’s problems, nor detailed requirements. Just stick to the top 3-5 problems and the top 3-5 key elements of your solution.

This forces sharpness not only in your thinking, but also in your communication with stakeholders. This, in turn, encourages more constructive feedback, which is what you really need at this stage.

Objective Prioritization

You’ve probably received a lot of internal input (solicited and unsolicited) on features for your product. Most have probably been articulated as “must-have’s” for one reason or another. Of course, you know that most of them are probably not really needed at this early stage, certainly not for an MVP.

To quote from the book Getting Real by 37signals: “Make features work hard to be implemented. Each feature must prove itself.” For an MVP, each feature must be tied to tangibly solving a top customer problem.

Bruce discusses using a scorecard type system to objectively prioritize features for product roadmapping — in particular, assigning a value metric for a feature’s contribution toward the product’s business goals, and balancing it against a level-of-effort (LOE) metric. The exercise can easily be done in a spreadsheet or Reqqs, an excellent roadmapping tool he’s developing.

A similar approach can be used to prioritize the features for your MVP:

1. Rank each Problem documented in your Product Canvas in terms of your understanding of what is the customer’s top-most problem to be solved, followed by the second, etc.

2. Map Solution elements to Problems. These may not necessarily be one-to-one, as sometimes multiple elements of your Solution may work together to solve a particular customer problem.

3. For each Solution element, identify if it’s a “must-have” for your MVP. Solution elements meant to solve customer Problem #1 are automatically must-have’s. The trick is in making the determination for the remaining Problem/Solution mixes.

4. Identify all features for each Solution element. If you already have a list of feature ideas, this becomes more of a mapping exercise. The net result is every feature idea will be mapped directly back to a specific Problem, which is awesome.

5. Mark each feature as “In MVP” or not. Be ruthless in asking if a feature really, really needs to be part of the MVP. (Tip: not every feature under a “must-have” Solution element necessarily needs to be “In MVP”.)

6. “T-shirt size” the LOE for each feature, if practicable. Just L/M/S at this point. A quick conversation with your engineering lead can give you this.

Like with roadmap prioritization, this entire exercise can also be done via a simple spreadsheet. Here’s a template I use that you can freely download.

The beauty of the spreadsheet is it brings into sharp focus a particular feature’s contribution toward solving customers’ primary problems. And an MVP must attempt to do exactly that.

Shuttle Diplomacy

To paraphrase Bruce from p26 of his presentation, this is probably the most important part of the process — you need to get buy-in from your key stakeholders for your product strategy and MVP definition to be approved and “stick over time”. Bruce shares some excellent tips on how to do this on pp26-30. You need to do the same with your Product Canvas, and then with your MVP definition spreadsheet.

When you practice shuttle diplomacy:

“A magical thing happens. ‘Your’ plan becomes their plan too. This makes [review and approval] more of a formality, because everyone has had a hand in putting together the plan.”

To be clear, you’re not looking for “decision by committee”. As the product owner, you’ll still be looked upon as the final decision maker (remember to stand your ground), but you’re actively trying to bring others along by encouraging input and providing visibility.

Lean Startup purists may vomit at this, but that ignores the realities of getting things done in the corporate world. As Henry Chesbrough writes, “You have to fight — and win — on two fronts (both outside and inside), in order to succeed in corporate venturing.” This means corporate innovators “must work to retain support over time as conflicts arise (which they will).”

This means Stakeholder Development. And that requires shuttle diplomacy.

Here again is the link to download my MVP definition template. Let me know what you think!

How To Define An MVP: A Case Study

In my last post, I talked about how a minimum viable product (MVP) is not the smallest collection of features to be delivered. An MVP is basically an in-market experiment of a product idea that involves delivering real product to actual customers to get their feedback.

An MVP can be tested whether your idea is a brand new product or a new feature for an existing product.

And even if your product is software, your MVP doesn’t necessarily have to be software too.

Folks may be familiar with how Groupon started as a WordPress blog, called “The Daily Groupon”, on which the team posted daily discounts, restaurant gift certificates, concert vouchers, movie tickets, and other deals in Chicago area.

Food On The Table, a family meal planning and grocery shopping site eventually acquired by the Food Network, started by working with their customers individually, creating meal plans and shopping lists for them on spreadsheets and email, and then bought and delivered food items themselves.

So how do you go about defining an MVP for your product idea?

It starts with having a hypothesis for what features or capabilities you believe need to be delivered to your target customer in order to provide them value.

This is predicated on having done the hard upfront work of validating your customer’s problem (that it exists, it’s urgent, and pervasive), and then maybe even having tested a prototype of your solution vision.

If you feel you have a good enough understanding of your customer’s problem (pain point, job to be done, etc.), use that as a basis to identify what you believe are the must-have features for your MVP that are aligned with your solution vision.

Then test that MVP with real customers. Evaluate your results. Rinse and repeat.

To make this more tangible, here’s an example from my own experience.

For a product idea we had, we wanted to test our understanding of our customers’ top problems and get directional feedback on our solution approach. Directional feedback meant identifying the “right” handful of features to build first for early customers.

Based on some early customer conversations and market research, we developed a view of the problem domain. We sketched out our product vision on the Product CanvasTM, which allowed us to break down the problem domain into discrete problems and formulate testable falsifiable hypotheses around what we believed to be the top problems that our solution absolutely had to solve for first.

We built a clickable mockup defined by the key elements of our solution captured in our Product Canvas exercise. To keep things simple, we built a screen for each discrete problem to represent our solution vision — real html and css, in color, no lorem ipsum, with clickable interactions to represent the primary workflow through the screens.

We didn’t build out every interaction — just the main ones. We formulated a testable falsifiable hypothesis around the ability of each screen to solve a specific problem.

We then set up a number of customer interviews to test our problem hypotheses. During these customer conversations, we listened carefully to fully understand our customers’ world views and their current work flows, even noting the emotions in their voice and their body language (during in-person meetings, when we could do them) as they discussed their challenges and reacted to our screens.

We were deliberate and meticulous about documenting the results.

It turned out that while we had identified a viable problem domain, our view of what early customers considered as their chief problems was invalidated. We also learned that while our solution approach was generally in the right direction, there were features that we had not envisioned that early customers considered as must-have’s in the initial delivery.

As a massive bonus, we were actually able to garner a handful of very early customers who were willing to co-test the solution with us, further validating the fact that we had pricked a real pain point and were directionally correct in our solution approach.

As a primary outcome of this work we were able to understand our customers’ problem at a granular level, which helped prioritize the initial set of features to build. That drove the definition of the minimum viable product version of our solution.

And that’s what we did. We built just those features, and nothing else, and delivered it to those handful of early customers.

In fact, our first MVP wasn’t software. Our first MVP was more a concierge type service, sort of like what Food On The Table did — we “manually” delivered the service to each customer individually.

We learned a ton of really useful stuff. Things like what was really important to the customer, what features of the service they used more often than others, real insights into their workflow and how our solution could help improve it, and — crucially — what they were willing to pay for.

We used these learnings to then define a software MVP, and deliver it to early committed customers. The learnings from our “concierge” MVP experiment helped boost our confidence in defining the requirements for our software MVP. In other words, it was much less of a guess than it otherwise would have been.

We didn’t really bother with calling the software MVP a “release 1.0” or “version 1.0”, because that was irrelevant. We just focused on testing the solution until we received customer validation that it was truly providing value.

That gave us the confidence to know our product idea was “good to go” to scale up, put some real sales and marketing muscle behind it, and sell to more customers.

There’s no one way necessarily to approach an MVP. This is just one example of an approach. As Eric Ries states, defining an MVP is not formulaic: “It requires judgment to figure out, for any given context, what MVP makes sense.” Hopefully, this example gives you a template to define and test your own minimum viable product for your next great product idea.

I’ve created a handy primer on what is a minimum viable product. Download it below. I hope it helps you to become a pro at defining an MVP for your next great product idea!


An MVP Is Not The Smallest Collection Of Features You Can Deliver

Source: Spotify

Source: Spotify

There’s a lot of discussion and confusion about what is and isn’t a minimum viable product (MVP).

Worse, many execs have latched on to the term without really understanding what truly constitutes an MVP — many use it as a buzzword, and as a synonym to mean a completed version 1.0 ready to be sold to all customers.

Buzzwords are meaningless. They represent lazy thinking. And using “MVP” to mean “first market launch” or “first customer ship” means you’re back to the old waterfall, traditional project-driven software development, sales-focused approach. If that’s your approach, fine. Just don’t call what you’re delivering an MVP.

On the flip side, lots of folks in the enterprise world, including in product management, over-think the term. It gets lost in the clever nuances of market maturity, and a long entrenchment in the world of release dates and feature-based requirements thinking.

Many folks think of MVP as simply the smallest collection of features to deliver to customers. Wrong. It’s not.

The problem with that approach is it assumes we know ahead of time exactly what will satisfy customers. Even if we’ve served them for years, odds are when it comes to a new product or feature, we don’t.

Now, the challenge with the concept of a minimum viable product is it constitutes an entirely different way of thinking about our approach to product development.

It’s not about product delivery actually — in other words, it’s not about delivering product for the sake of delivering it or to hit a deadline.

An MVP is about validated learning.

As such, it puts customers’ problems squarely at the center, not our solution.

Reality check: Customers don’t care about your solution. They care about their problems. Your solution, while interesting, is irrelevant.

So if we’re going to use the term “MVP”, it’s important to understand what it really means.

Fortunately, all it takes to do that is to go back to the definition.

Download The Handy Primer “What Is An MVP?” >>

Minimum Viable Product (MVP) is a term coined by Eric Ries as part of his Lean Startup methodology, which lays out a framework for pursuing a startup in particular, and product innovation more generally. This means we need to understand the methodology of Lean Startup to have the right context for using terms like “MVP”. (Just like we shouldn’t use “product backlog” from Agile as a synonym for “dumping ground for all possible feature ideas”.)

Eric lays out a definition for what is an MVP:

“The minimum viable product is that version of a new product which allows a team to collect the maximum amount of validated learning about customers with the least effort.”

Eric goes on to explain exactly what he means (emphasis mine):

MVP, despite the name, is not about creating minimal products… In fact, MVP is quite annoying, because it imposes extra overhead. We have to manage to learn something from our first product iteration. In a lot of cases, this requires a lot of energy invested in talking to customers or metrics and analytics.

Second, the definition’s use of the words maximum and minimum means an MVP is decidedly not formulaic. It requires judgment to figure out, for any given context, what MVP makes sense.

Let’s break this down.

1. An MVP is a product. This means it must be something delivered to customers that they can use.

There’s a lot that’s been written about creating landing pages, mockups, prototypes, doing smoke tests, etc., and considering them as forms of MVPs. While these are undoubtedly worthwhile, and certainly “lean”, efforts to gain valuable learnings, they are not products. Read Ramli John‘s excellent post on “A Landing Page Is NOT A Minimum Viable Product“.

A product must attempt to deliver real value to customers. So a minimum viable product is an attempt — an experiment — to deliver real value to customer.

Which leads us to…

2. An MVP is viable. This means it must try to tangibly solve real world and urgent problems faced by your target customers. An MVP must attempt to deliver value.

So it’s not about figuring out the smallest collection of features. It’s about making sure we’ve understood our customers’ top problems, and figuring out how to deliver a solution to those problems in a way that early customers are willing to “pay” for. (“Pay” in quotes as it depends on your business model.)

If we can’t viably solve early customers’ primary problems, everything else is moot. That is why an MVP is about validated learning.

3. An MVP is the minimum version of your product vision. A few years ago, I had to build an online form builder app that would allow customers to create online payment forms without the need to write any HTML or worry about connecting to a payment gateway. Before having our developers write a single line of code to build the product, we first offered customers the capability as a service: we would get their specs, and then manually build and deliver each online payment form one-by-one, customer-by-customer. Customers would pay us for this service.

This “concierge” type service was our MVP version of our product vision. Of course, it wasn’t scalable. But we learned a heck of a lot: most common types of payment forms they wanted, what was most important to them in a form, frequency of wanting to make changes, reporting needs, and how they perceived the value of the service.

We parlayed these learnings into developing the software app itself — which, by the way, we delivered as an MVP to early customers to whom we had pre-sold the software product. (Yes, we delivered two different types of MVPs!)

Whether you take a “concierge” approach or your MVP is actual code, it most definitely does NOT mean it’s a half-baked or buggy product. (Remember viable from above?)

It DOES mean critically thinking through the absolute necessary features your product will need day 1 to solve your early customers’ top problems, focusing on delivering those first, and putting everything else on the backlog for the time being. It also means being very deliberate about finding those “earlyvangelists” that Steve Blank always talks about.

Ultimately, the key here is “maximum amount of validated learning”. This means being systematic about identifying your riskiest assumptions, formulating testable falsifiable hypotheses around these, and using an MVP — a minimum viable product version of your product vision — to prove or disprove your hypotheses.

Now, validated learning can certainly be accomplished via a landing page, mockup, wireframes, etc. And it may make sense to do these things. Super. But don’t call them MVPs, because while they may deliver value to you and your product idea, they’re not delivering actual value to the customer.

At the same time, the traditional product management exercise of identifying all the features of a product, force ranking them, and then drawing a line through the list to identify the smallest collection to be delivered by a given timeframe is not an MVP. Why? Because this approach is not predicated on maximizing validated learning. If you’re going to pursue this approach, go ahead and call it Release 1.0, Version 1.0, “Beta”, whatever. But don’t call it an MVP.

An MVP is about not just the solution we’re delivering, but also the approach. The key is maximizing validated learning.

I’ve created a handy primer on what is a minimum viable product. Download it below. I hope it helps you to become a pro at defining an MVP for your next great product idea!

Download The Handy Primer “What Is An MVP?” >>

Selling An MVP

By John Peltier

The Lean Startup movement led by Eric Ries has put the concept of minimum viable product (MVP) into the current vernacular, and certainly into Shardul’s vocabulary. 🙂 An MVP is generally understood to be a product that has just enough functionality to validate that you’ve found market problems buyers are willing to pay to solve, and that your offering solves the problems effectively enough to capture some of the market. This is an attempt to avoid over-building a solution, and solving problems that buyers don’t actually have.

Conducting a full-scale launch of an MVP can be both rewarding and dangerous.

Fraught with Peril

One area of danger is building an MVP that best fits a segment of the market, but selling the solution to the entire market. Buyers from multiple segments force language into their contracts demanding their most critical features, partially solving problems for multiple segments but delaying fully solving the problem for any segment. This makes it more difficult to get glowing references, since buyers from all market segments perceive gaps for a longer period of time.

Another danger is defining your MVP by the functionality needed to demo, versus the functionality needed to use. Teams may be tempted to defer under-the-hood capabilities until after release, especially when feeling the pressure of time-to-market. This gets you to market faster, but with a product that has known gaps.

As things progress, Sales meets resistance due to needs not met in your MVP, and starts bargaining for delivery promises to win deals. Meanwhile, this can crowd out bandwidth to close the gaps–which represent under-the-hood capabilities all buyers will need. Once you say yes to a few deal-makers, you can’t say yes to any more. This will also strain the relationship with Sales.

One way to adjust is to proactively include fewer big-ticket items on the roadmap, while allocating some percentage of capacity to under-the-hood needs. At some point your estimations won’t line up with reality, though, and you’ll have to escalate something that everyone assumed was already there. The silver lining is that these episodes–often a response to onboarding needs, and sometimes useful in winning an early reference–can be used later as an example of why you need to invest in the engine!

A Focused Solution

On the other hand, selling an MVP delivers revenue at perhaps the earliest possible date.  Prospects who don’t need all the bells and whistles encounter a solution that meets their needs, without having to wait for you to build feature after feature that they don’t need. Early adopters likely wouldn’t wait for you to deliver your solution; it’s much more likely that they purchase another vendor’s solution. The other vendor’s efforts to increase the buyer’s switching costs will then make it difficult for you to get that prospect at a later date.

As early adopters, your first clients get to help you decide which 15% of the hundreds of possible features you actually need to build. While a market is much bigger than a handful of early adopters, some effort towards satisfying their needs is warranted if it can deliver you early references, and especially if the things they need are known needs you’ll have to address at some point in the product’s development.

These benefits carry an important condition: the MVP that you provide must solve the core needs well. Adequate won’t win over prospects with lesser needs, and it won’t convince early adopters to provide glowing references. Prospects will need to be convinced that your solution is already so good, that it’s in their best interest to come along with you for the ride.

Your Turn

Depending on the quality of your execution, the early days of being in the market with an MVP can be both hairy and immensely rewarding. What other benefits or drawbacks do you encounter when going to market with an MVP?


John Peltier is an accomplished product manager and marketer working in the growing technology community in Atlanta, Georgia. John shares his passion for product management by organizing ProductCamp Atlanta, and by writing at The PM Vision.  John is most easily contacted on Twitter at @johnpeltier.

Why It’s Better To Be Smaller When Implementing Agile In A Large Company

Having done many waterfall projects, I was recently part of an effort to move a large organization to an agile software delivery process after years of following waterfall. I’ll be blunt: it was downright painful. That said, I’d pick agile over the mutlti-staged, paper intensive, meeting heavy, PMO driven waterfall process I encountered when I joined the organization.

Although the shift was painful, it was a terrific educational experience. Based on lessons learned, we adopted certain principles to guide our approach to implementing agile in the organization.

Dream big. Think smaller.

This means having a vision for what the solution will look like and the benefits it will provide customers, but then boiling it down to specifics to be able to execute. For example, at one of my former gigs, we had identified the need to make improvements to our online payments process, and captured over 20 different enhancements on a single slide under the title of “Payment Enhancements”. (Yes, in very tiny font, like 8-point.) Those enhancements were beyond simple things like improving copy or the layout of elements. Each enhancement would have involved material impacts to back-end processes. As such, “Payment Enhancements” is not an epic, or at least, it’s a super big and super nebulous one that cannot be measured. Rather, I argued that each bullet on that 1-pager could be considered an epic in and of itself that could be placed on the roadmap and would need to be further broken down into stories for execution purposes.

Thinking smaller also means considering launching the capability to a smaller subset of customers. Even when pursuing an enhancement to an existing product, it’s important to ask whether the enhancement will truly benefit all customers using your product or whether it needs to be made available to all customers on day 1. Benefits of identifying an early adopter segment: (1) get code out faster, (2) lower customer impact, (3) get customer feedback sooner that can be acted on.

Be sharp and ruthless about defining the MVP.

Lean Startup defines MVP (Minimum Viable Product) as “that version of the product that allows the team to collect the maximum amount of validated learning from customers”.

(We think) we know the problem. We don’t know for certain the solution. We have only a vision and point-of-view on what it could be. We will only know for certain we have a viable solution when customers tell us so because they use it. So identify what are the top customer problems we’re trying to solve, the underlying assumptions in our proposed solution, and what we really need to learn from our customers. Then formulate testable hypotheses and use that to define our MVP.

Make validated learning the measure

In the war of SDLCs, I’m no blanket waterfall basher nor true believer of agile. But from having done a number of waterfall projects I’ve observed that it’s typically been managed by what I call “management by date”, or more often than not, make-believe date.

As human beings, we like certainty. A date is certain. So setting a date is something that we feel can be measured, in part because a date feels real, it gives us a target, and in part probably because over decades we’ve become so accustomed to using date-driven project management to drive our product development efforts. The problem becomes that this gets us into the classic scope-time-budget headache, which means we’re now using those elements as the measure of our progress.

The thing is, scope, time and budget mean absolutely nothing to the customer. What really matters is whether customers find value in the solution we are trying to provide them. Traditional product development and project management practices don’t allow us to measure that until product launch, by which time it may be too late.

So we need to make learning the primary goal, not simply hitting a release date, which is really a check-the-box exercise and means nothing. Nothing beats direct customer feedback. We don’t know what the solution is until customers can get their hands on it. So instead of working like crazy to hit a release date, work like crazy to get customer validation. That allows us to validate our solution (MVP) and pivot as necessary.

Focus always, always on delivering a great user experience

Better to have less functionality that delivers a resonating experience than more that compromises usability. A poor UX directly impacts the value proposition of our solution. We need look no further than Apple’s stumble on the iPhone 5 Maps app. (Ironic.)

Continuous deployment applies not just to agile delivery, but also the roadmap

Over four years ago, Saeed Khan posted a nice piece on roadmaps where he said:

A roadmap is a planned future, laid out in broad strokes — i.e. planned or proposed product releases, listing high level functionality or release themes, laid out in rough timeframes — usually the target calendar or fiscal quarter — for a period usually extending for 2 or 3 significant feature releases into the future.

The roadmap is just that: a high-level map to achieve a vision. Not a calendar of arbitrary dates to hit. Too many roadmaps seem to suffer from the same date-driven project management approach.

For most established software products, I typically advocate having at least a 12-month roadmap that communicates the direction to be taken to achieve the vision and big business goals. It identifies targeted epics to achieve that vision. The vision is boiled down to a more tangible 3-month roadmap. That’s the stuff we want to get done in the next 3 months and what the agile teams need to work on.

Create an accountable person or body that actively looks at the roadmap on a monthly and quarterly basis. On a monthly basis, this body helps the agile Product Owner(s) prioritize the backlog against the 3-month roadmap. On a quarterly basis, this body evaluates overall progress against the 12-month roadmap. As such, 12 months is a rolling period, not an annual calendar of unsubstantiated promises of delivery.

What has your experience been implementing agile in your organization? What principles does your organization follow in executing an agile process?